Public Utility Bus (PUB) in the Philippines

Public Utility Buses (PUBs) in the Philippines are more than mere modes of transportation; they are the lifelines of the local communities, connecting urban centers and rural areas alike. PUBs are also credited for their important role in catering to the diverse transportation needs of the millions of commuting Filipinos. They serve as the primary means of commuting for the masses, bridging the gaps in accessibility, and enabling individuals to travel conveniently within and between cities and provinces.

The roles of PUBs extend beyond being a convenient means for moving people and things around. Buses also contribute to reducing traffic congestion by accommodating a large number of passengers in a single vehicle, thereby promoting a more efficient use of road space. Not only that, they also play a pivotal role in lowering carbon emissions compared to private vehicles, contributing to environmental sustainability. In this article, you can learn more about public utility buses, along with their functions, purpose, benefits, evolution, challenges, fares, features, and role in shaping the nation’s transit landscape.

pub public utility bus explained

What is a PUB: Public Utility Bus?

PUB is a public utility bus. This refers to the type of mass transit vehicle that operates on scheduled routes and provides transportation services to the general public for a fee, earning them the moniker of being the rolling arteries of urban transit. PUBs also contribute significantly to mass transit, providing a shared mode of transportation that helps reduce traffic congestion, particularly in urban areas.

Some of the key characteristics of Public Utility Buses (PUBs) include:

Routes: Arterial roads, highways, expressways, and collector roads.
Services: Regular, Airconditioned, Express, P2P, Shuttle, Loop, Premium, Limited Stop.
Fare Collection: Distance or zonal as LTFRB authorizes.
Body Make: Coach with specified features.
Features: GNSS, Wi-Fi, CCTV, AFCS, compliance standards, lay-over/garage requirements.
Year Model: Chassis and engine must be current.

From regular to air-conditioned, express to point-to-point (P2P), shuttle, loop, premium, and limited stop services, all types of Public Utility Buses (PUBs) follow predetermined routes, picking up and dropping off all types of passengers at designated stops but only on certain road types. Whether navigating the bustling streets of Metro Manila or traversing the scenic routes of provincial areas, the PUBs are regulated by the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) and the Department of Transportation (DOTr), along with their routes, fares, safety standards, and other operational guidelines in order to ensure efficient coverage and fair service to people from different socio-economic backgrounds while facilitating the movement of people across the archipelago.

Functions of PUBs

Public utility buses (PUBs) serve a fundamental role in catering to the diverse transportation needs of Filipinos. As one of the primary means of commuting for millions of Filipinos, PUBs bridge the gaps in accessibility, enabling individuals to travel conveniently within and between cities and provinces.

Benefits of PUBs

The benefits of buses extend beyond their role in personal transportation. They contribute to reducing traffic congestion by accommodating a large number of passengers in a single vehicle, thereby promoting a more efficient use of road space. Buses also play a pivotal role in lowering carbon emissions compared to private vehicles, contributing to environmental sustainability.

Riding buses in the Philippines offers several advantages, making it a preferred mode of transportation for many:

  • Cost-Effective

Buses are generally more affordable than private transportation options, making them a cost-effective choice for daily commuting or long-distance travel.

  • Extensive Network 

Buses cover a vast network of routes, connecting urban centers to rural areas. This extensive reach ensures accessibility for a wide range of passengers, even in remote locations.

  • Traffic Efficiency 

PUBs can navigate through traffic more efficiently than private vehicles, especially during peak hours. Dedicated bus lanes and routes as well as express lanes and expressways all contribute to a smoother flow, reducing travel time for passengers.

  • Environmentally Friendly 

Buses are a more sustainable option compared to individual cars. Carrying multiple passengers in a single vehicle helps reduce the overall carbon footprint and contributes to environmental conservation better compared to individual car travel,

  • Community Connection 

Buses serve as a crucial link between communities, fostering social connectivity. They enable people to interact, share experiences, and contribute to a sense of shared identity among passengers.

  • Affordable Long-Distance Travel 

For inter-city or inter-provincial travel, buses provide an economical option. Deluxe buses with modern amenities cater to those seeking comfort during longer journeys.

  • Inclusive Accessibility 

Buses are designed to accommodate a diverse range of passengers, including those with disabilities. Efforts have been made to make public buses more accessible, promoting inclusivity in transportation.

  • Cashless Transactions 

Some bus companies operating in the country have adopted cashless payment systems, adding convenience and efficiency to the boarding process. Like the BGC Bus as well as the EDSA Carousel which only uses smart cards, these PUBs also align with global trends toward digital transactions.

  • Reduced Traffic Congestion

Public Utility Buses (PUBs) play a crucial role in mitigating traffic congestion by accommodating a large number of passengers in a single vehicle. This shared mobility approach helps reduce the overall number of individual vehicles on the road, easing traffic flow.

  • Affordable Fares and Subsidies

The tiered fare system and government subsidies make bus travel an affordable option for various economic classes. This ensures that transportation remains accessible to a broad spectrum of the population.

  • Safety Measures and Regulations

Public utility buses are subject to safety regulations and standards, including regular inspections and adherence to traffic rules. This commitment to safety enhances the overall well-being of passengers and contributes to a secure public transportation environment.

  • Promotion of Shared Mobility

Buses promote shared mobility, encouraging people to travel together rather than in individual vehicles. This not only reduces traffic but also fosters a sense of community and shared responsibility for sustainable transportation practices.

While challenges exist, such as traffic congestion and the need for infrastructure improvements, the benefits of riding buses make them a practical and preferred choice for many commuters and travelers.

Evolution of PUBs

The evolution of buses in the Philippines is a journey marked by technological advancements and innovations. From its humble beginnings in the 1960s, to the modern air-conditioned buses equipped with comfortable amenities, the Philippine buses have undergone significant transformations to meet the changing needs of passengers.

The government, however, continues to commit substantial resources to modernize the nation’s bus systems, incorporating modern air-conditioned buses and introducing mobile payment solutions. This concerted effort has elevated the public utility buses into the preferred mode of public transportation for a considerable number of Filipinos.

Types of Public Utility Buses (PUBs) in the Philippines

The Philippines boasts a diverse array of bus types that cater to various transportation needs. Here are some prominent bus types commonly seen on the roads:

Air-Conditioned Buses 


These buses provide a more comfortable and climate-controlled environment, making them popular for long-distance journeys between cities or provinces. They also sometimes offer more comfortable options, with amenities such as mounted televisions (TVs), reclining seats, more legroom, onboard restrooms, free Wi-Fi, La-Z-Boy seats, charging ports, and individual tablets with games, music, and movies as entertainment options.

Ordinary or Non-Air-Conditioned Buses 


Commonly used for shorter distances, these buses are characterized by open windows and natural ventilation. They are a cost-effective option for daily commuting within urban areas or for travel to nearby towns as the fare prices are lower than other bus types, though they do not offer much in terms of comfort. 

Express or Point-to-Point (P2P) Buses 


P2P buses, also known as express buses, offer a direct, non-stop route between specific points, often connecting major urban centers. They are known for their efficiency and time-saving features.

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) or EDSA Carousel


Found in major urban centers like Metro Manila, BRT systems use dedicated bus lanes to provide faster and more efficient transportation. They often have well-designed stations and employ advanced ticketing systems.

City Buses


City buses operate within urban centers, serving commuters for daily transit needs. They are designed for efficiency and often have multiple stops along fixed routes.

Provincial Buses


These buses connect different provinces, providing long-distance transportation services. They are equipped for extended travel and may vary in terms of amenities and comfort levels.

Double-Decker Buses 


Mostly seen in tourist destinations, though they are now more commonly seen as part of the fleet of the premium point-to-point (P2P) bus lines, double-decker buses used to be more common in the old days, and were known in history as the Manila Motor Coach or Matorco buses plying Roxas Boulevard. The double deckers are an impeccable choice as they offer an elevated view and increased passenger capacity. They also provide a unique experience for travelers exploring scenic routes. Unfortunately, the double deckers have also evolved and the Matorco buses have long disappeared from the streets of Metro Manila. 

Sleeper Buses 


Designed for long-haul journeys, sleeper buses offer bunk-style sleeping arrangements for passengers. This type of bus is suitable for overnight travel, providing a restful experience. If you are wondering where to find one of these extra comfortable sleeper buses, then head on out to the Victory Liner website or terminal and check out their “Royal Class” buses with routes going from Cubao to Baguio and Kamias, Quezon City to Cagayan and vice versa or check out the Bicol Isarog sleeper bus.

Shuttle Buses 

Commonly used for transporting employees or students between specific locations, shuttle buses follow fixed routes and schedules.

School Buses 


Typically used to transport students to and from schools, these buses often have distinctive yellow color and safety features to accommodate children.

Tourist Buses 

Tourist bus

Equipped with features like large windows and tour guides, these buses cater specifically to tourists exploring popular destinations and attractions. They also offer tours—a convenient and informative way to experience the local culture and attractions.

Airport Shuttle Buses

These buses operate between airports and key locations within cities, offering a convenient and cost-effective means of transportation for air travelers.

Electric Buses


As part of efforts to promote sustainability, some areas in the Philippines are adopting electric buses. These electric buses contribute to reducing environmental impact and promoting eco-friendly transportation solutions in and around Metro Manila and some other major cities like Cebu and Davao. 

Understanding the various types of public utility buses (PUBs) helps highlight the diversity in the country’s transportation system, addressing the unique needs of different communities and travelers. It also allows passengers to prepare and choose the most suitable option based on their travel requirements and preferences, as well as the nature of their journey.

Fares and Features

PUBs are known for providing a cost-effective means of transportation at a minimum fare of P12.00, making them accessible to a broad range of commuters. Fares are often regulated to ensure affordability for the general public.

Public Utility Bus (PUB) fares vary based on factors such as distance, route, and the type of bus service. The introduction of cashless payment systems and fare integration initiatives aims to streamline the payment process for passengers. Modern buses are equipped with features such as Wi-Fi, air conditioning, and accessibility features, enhancing the overall commuting experience.

Example of Bus Companies in the Philippines

Some of the most well-known bus companies operating in the Philippines are as follows:

1. Philippine Rabbit Bus Lines 

A bus company known for its extensive route network connecting Luzon regions.

2. Victory Liner 

A major player with services reaching Northern Luzon.

3. Genesis Transport Service 

Renowned for its long-distance services to key provinces.

4. JAC Liner 

Operating routes in Southern Luzon, including Batangas and Quezon.

5. Dionets Liner 

Serving routes in the Bicol region.

6. Ceres Transport 

A key player in Southern Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao, connecting major cities.

7. Davao Metro Shuttle 

Serving routes in Davao City and neighboring areas.

8. Bachelor Express 

Catering to routes in Visayas and Mindanao.

9. Rural Transit Mindanao 

A significant player in providing transportation services in Mindanao.

10. Southwest Tours (SWT) 

Operating in Palawan, connecting key tourist destinations.

Reforms Regarding the PUBs

The key transformation in the Philippine bus transport sector occurred through the formalized liberalization efforts outlined in the Department of Transportation (DOTr), formerly known as Department of Transportation and Communication (DOTC), via the Department Order No. 92-587. This order established the regulatory framework for transport services, addressing critical aspects such as:

  • Route-setting mechanism

The DOTr and LTFRB utilize the “Route Measured Capacity” model to determine routes based on estimated supply and demand for public transport.

  • Fare adjustment procedures

Public transport fares, excluding air-conditioned buses, are regulated. Under DO No. 92-587, the LTFRB is mandated to review and implement any fare adjustments.

Additional noteworthy reforms include:

  • Moratorium on the issuance of certificates of public conveyance (CPC), including a halt in 2000 for provincial buses and a nationwide moratorium through MC 2003-028, which also introduced the “Bus Rationalization Program” in 2003. This program aimed to reduce bus congestion on EDSA and included a moratorium on issuing certificates to operate for Metro Manila buses.
  • Reforms influencing the supply and cost of alternative transportation modes. This involves the implementation of projects providing alternatives to bus transport, such as the development of rail systems like LRT 2 and MRT 3, along with the promotion of AUVs (Asian Utility Vehicles).


Despite their crucial role, buses face challenges such as traffic congestion, inadequate infrastructure, and the need for sustainability. Overcrowded routes and delays are issues that impact the overall efficiency of the bus system. The aggressive drivers competing for passengers and all the illegal stops they make when picking up passengers also often cause heavy traffic and accidents. Addressing these challenges requires a comprehensive approach, including infrastructure development and the integration of technology, which the government hopes to address via the new Public Utility Vehicle Modernization Program (PUVMP)—an LTFRB program designed to consolidate the franchise and transport cooperatives into one and upgrade the public utility vehicles (PUVs) plying different routes all over the country. 


As one of the vital contributors to the nation’s mobility and connectivity, buses are the rolling arteries and the lifelines of local inter- and intra-region transport. The PUBs are considered as the primary means of commuting, connecting urban and rural areas, and bridging the gaps in accessibility, which enables individuals to travel conveniently within and between cities and provinces. As the industry navigates challenges and embraces innovation, the story of public utility buses continues to unfold, reflecting the ever-evolving tapestry of transportation in the archipelago.

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